Freshwater Molluscan Shells / Links

These include links to pages with material I would want on this site, and subjects related to freshwater malacology. Typically, about 20% of links change or go offline every year. Often a search into re-arranged domains and directories turns them up. Of those I could not relocate, links to archived material are included for those that seemed important, but many of these documents are incomplete. Links checked, updated, February 19, 2011. Most recent new links Aug. 2015.


Western North America mussels, excellent illustrated PDF:

Global diversity of freshwater bivalves (ABSTRACT)

Anatomy of a Unionid mussel:
Soft parts;

Mussel Project: towards a reclassification of the Unionoida; progress reports and databases.

Atlantic Slope Elliptio, also conglutinates, databases, other projects. New worldwide, more comprehensive mussel gallery;

Unionacean systematics, other papers. Conclusions are diagrammed in Dissertation, Chapter 7b. archived site

Freshwater Mussel Genera of the World; one example from each unionacean genus, good images;

North American freshwater mussels; their biology, exploitation, and environmental destruction:
Their collecting, identification, and misidentification:

Amazing examples of agressive mimicry in Unionid egg/larval conglutinates. Video Clips!

Pictures of Illinois species including several extinct; commercial exploitation, etc.

Unionid mussels of the northern Midwest and Hudson Bay drainages; keys, information, and illustrations. archived site

North Carolina, comprhensive information on unionid mussels, ID's, status, distribution. archived site

New York, New Jersey, Connecticut mussels, complete guide to biology, study, identification, conservation.

Excellent gallery of American unionacean clams, including specimens from old collections, Florida and deep south species. On commercial site, photo galleries: archived site; slow to load

Extensive links to technical articles, projects, home pages dealing with the unionacean clams:

Freshwater mussels exhibit, McClung Museum, Knoxville, Tennessee. Web page and exhibit

Freshwater pearls exhibit at the American Museum of Natural History, New York, links to marine pearls;

Triannual Unionid Reports (TUR): conservation status and research. Unionaceans, other mollusks, mostly North American.

Recent work on Western United States unionaceans. Slide shows!(mostly now offline) See archive of this important site:

Example of freshwater mussel shells in archaeology, and references in field: archived site

Analysis of shell midden deposits exposed by the 2010 Nashville flood in Tennessee. 2012 publication.

Use of freshwater mussels in stable isotope geochemistry,*/ archived site

Example of mussel fishery management, Brazil. (Malacological Society of London, Bull. 33) archived site, slow to load.

Freshwater mussels for Primary schoolers

Corbicula in America.

Missouri Conservationist article with recipes for Corbicula

Corbicula extract marketed as a food suplement for the liver. Sites change frequently. Please search "corbicula extract"

Genetic analysis of invasive Corbicula:

Oyster-like, cemented species of Corbicula, new species from Indonesia (ABSTRACT)

Zebra Mussels, plague of the Great Lakes and Midwestern rivers.

PBS News Hour segment, Aug 23, 2002 on the drying out of the Colorado delta; Karl Flessa and the brackish water Mulinia coloradoensis (Family Mactridae),

Mussels of Santa Catarina State, southern Brazil, Portuguese site. archived site.

Ortmann, A. E., 1921. South American Naiades; a contribution to the knowledge of the freshwater mussels of South America. Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum, Vol. VIII no 3, pp 451 - 671. Online at

Margaritifera margaritifera in Bavaria, German site.

Gro▀muscheln: Unionacean clams in Germany. German site.
archived site.


Russian site, Aquaria

Russian freshwater bivalves, Russian site

Ganges River bivalvia, Wolfgang Fischer's reference with many new pictures.

Chinese unionidae, corbicula; Classic Heude reference in French:

Magazine articles, freshwater pearls, pearls in general
Tennessee Pearl Tour

Cooking and eating freshwater bivalves from the mouth of the Yellow River. Chinese site archived site.

Online database, museum holdings of unionoids from Congo and Zambezi Rivers. Images of all specimens.

North American Sphaeriid phylogeny*/ archived site.

Optional parental care in Sphaerium (ABSTRACT)

Sibling rivalry among developing Sphaeriid clams (ABSTRACT)

Sphaeriid clams on Prozac (ABSTRACT)


Freshwater mollusks thought to be extinct in the news! Perhaps the molluscan equivalent of the ivory billed woodpecker. This item was referred to by Jay Leno, May 9, 2005. "...Three snails lost in Alabama have been found! How amazing!? Just how far could they have gone?? They're snails!..." archived site.

Gastropod identification, discussion, characteristics, habits, from the Freshwater Gastropods of North America project:

Gastropoda of the Great Lakes; pictures and discussion of all major families:

Collecting, specimen preparation, storage, and live culture of freshwater gastropods.

Burch's Freshwater Snails of North America reference Hit "simple search" on the left side of the web page that comes up, and enter the number 600382026 in the search box.

Florida freshwater gastropods; comprhensive information on all native species.

Best from the Animal Diversity Web.
      Great Lakes Gastropoda (by microhabitat)      

Habits, habitats, anatomy, and biology of freshwater families:

Apple Snails (Ampullariidae), from the aquarist's viewpoint; their anatomy, behavior, classification, reproduction. Now multilingual.

Biology and life history of three newly designated endangered pleurocerid snails in the Coosa River drainages, from Federal register. archived site

Item in Triannual Unionid Report on reintroductions of Io Fluvialis and other species. Other articles on page.

Freshwater gastropods of the American Pacific Northwest. Primarily hydrobiidae. Bureau of Land Management site has link to illustrated PDF document, 6.93 Meg. Includes new species.

Theodoxus fluviatilus makes mollusk of the year in Germany (German site)

Observations on Theodoxus fluviatilus.

Study of Theodoxus fluviatilis features in Germany and the Baltic.

Endemic Semisulcospira species of Japan's Lake Biwa.

Some Lake Baikal snails, Russian site

One of several pages on the Australian National Museum's site. Links to endangered species, hydrobiid fauna of mound springs, gastropod taxonomy and systematics, Glacidorbis, and other areas of research.

Efects of geologic bedrock on Elimia populations (ABSTRACT)

Effect of diet on Elimia snails (ABSTRACT)

Pleurocerid molecular phylogeny (ABSTRACT)

Crayfish induce a defensive shell shape in a freshwater Elimia snails (ABSTRACT)

Lavigeria species in Lake Tanganyika

Reclassification of Tanganyika gastropod species

Movements of Lavigeria in Lake Tanganyika

Fossil origin and evolution of Tanganyika fauna (ABSTRACT)

Tropical and temperate snails in the aquarium, including images of live Tanganyika gastropods, also shrimp, crayfish; French/ English/ Portuguese.

Evolution of Viviparidae in the African Rift Valley (ABSTRACT)

Origin and maintenance of sexual and parthenogenetic reproduction in a genus of freshwater snails [Viviparidae, Campeloma] in eastern North America. archived site

Gastropods (Gyrotoma and Tulotoma) endemic to the Coosa River drainage of Alabama (largely extinct). archived site

Life Cycle of Viviparus contectoides (ABSTRACT)

The Chinese Mystery Snail, introduced into North America. archived site

Morphometric analysis of Cipangopaludina opercula and shells

Cipangopaludina infected with intestinal fluke parasites (ABSTRACT)

Ukrainian Bithyniidae

Snails as parasite vectors, from the World Health Organization.

Freshwater Snails of Africa and their Medical Importance by David Seymour Brown: book online

Melanopsidae, here referred to as "pitch" snails:

Melanopsis in the aquarium and linked pages on other superfamilies, families, and species accessable under "schnecken" in this comprehensive German site, some English.

Valvatidae, section of the above website; excellent photos, links, references. German site.


Planorbidae, Lymnaeidae and Physidae of Peru



Freshwater limpets, European:

Regional (with both clams and snails)

British Columbia endangered mollusks archived site

Lake Tanganyika shells

Aquaculture potential of snails (Pomacea sp.) and clams (Anodontites sp.) in the Amazon region:

Central American non-marine mollusca, classic Von Martens reference online;

Pilsbry, H. A. 1911. Non-marine mollusca of Patagonia. Reports of the Princeton University Expedition to Patagonia, 1896-1899 vol. 3. pp 513-633 + 14 plates. Online at

Land and freshwater mollusks of Austria; neat fossil melanopsidae, landsnail and habitat photos:

European landsnails, aquatic pulmonates, marine shells. Excellent microphotographs.

Pilsbry, H. A, and Bequaert, J. 1927 African freshwater mollusca reference. Placed online by the AMNH at site comes in, but no content; Feb 2011.

Lower Tigris and Euphrates regions, Iraq, recent mollusca:

General, and related

Translation in the Georgian Language New, August 2015.

Translation in the Belarusian Language New, September 2015.

Freshwater ecoregions of the World

German site, Pachymelania, Neritina, Septaria Melanoides in the aquarium.

Freshwater Molluscan Art. Beautiful portrayal of Lake Erie freshwater mollusks, or any you might want:

All aspects of shells, shelling, and mollusks:

Worldwide freshwater biodiversity sites, tabulated data from the U.N. Environmental Programme- World Conservation Monitoring Centre. Fish, crabs, molluscs.

Freshwater mollusks on postage stamps. Examples in margaritiferidae, unionidae, neritidae, viviparidae, ampullariidae, planorbidae, lymnaeidae and hydrobiidae. Search page:

Screensavers: World freshwater mussels, snails. Wonderful pics by Tom Watters (I wish I had) in random slide show format. Images missing, but linked .SCR files still available. Feb 2011.

The Freshwater Mollusk Conservation Society: Devoted to advocacy, education, and conservation science of freshwater mollusks.

The Nature Conservancy, an organization doing more towards preserving habitat for mussels, other invertebrates, and plants.

Online bibliographic database, by Kevin Cummings, Art Bogan, Tom Watters, and Chris Mayer.

Another project, the Gray Fossil Site; Miocene vertebrate fossils in Tennessee--tapirs:

Other projects and photos:

The Altamaha River on the Georgia coastal plain, United States. The areas tucked in behind the sand bars are most favorable for unionaceans, sphaericeans, viviparids, pleurocerids, and a few BIG alligators.

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